Estrogen Patch in Newly Postmenopausal Women May Reduce Alzheimer’s Risk

(Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease) Can estrogen preserve brain function and decrease the risk of Alzheimer’s disease when given early in menopause? Newly postmenopausal women who received estrogen via a skin patch had reduced beta-amyloid deposits, the sticky plaques found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease, a Mayo Clinic study published this month in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease found. Ultimately, these deposits harm neurons, leading to cognitive problems.

In the study, women with APOE ε4 — one form of the most common gene associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease — had lower levels of amyloid deposits.

“This study showed, for the first time, that the brain amyloid deposition ─ a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease ─ is reduced in newly postmenopausal women who received 17beta-Estradiol patch form of hormone therapy,” says lead author Kejal Kantarci, M.D., a Mayo Clinic radiologist.

“Women with APOE e4, who have a greater genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease, particularly benefited from this therapy.”

Menopause is defined as occurring 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual period and marks the end of menstrual cycles. In the U.S., the average age of menopause is 51. A rapid decline in estrogen with menopause may be associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease risk in women.

The Women’s Health Initiative study by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported that menopausal hormone therapy started in women 65 or older increased the risk of dementia. In contrast, the multicenter Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study tested the hypothesis that healthy and younger women would respond to menopausal hormone therapy more favorably.

The Mayo Clinic study used data from the Kronos study to determine the effects of menopausal hormone therapy shortly after menopause, during the critical window of rapid estrogen depletion — five to 36 months past menopause. Researchers investigated the brain amyloid deposition in 68 women ages 42 to 59 who participated in the Kronos trial during this critical window. The researchers used positron emission tomography, also known as a PET scan, to look for the brain amyloid deposits three years after the trial ended.

Of the 68 women, 21 received estrogen via a skin patch, 17 received estrogen orally and 30 received a placebo. Amyloid deposition was lower in women who received the patch, compared to the placebo, and the effect was most apparent in women with the APOE e4 genotype. The oral treatment was not associated with lower amyloid deposition.

The authors are seeking funding to perform amyloid PET imaging at eight more Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention study sites around the U.S.

“If our results are confirmed in the larger group of women, this finding has the potential to change the concepts for preventive interventions that drive the Alzheimer’s disease field today,” Dr. Kantarci says.

“It also may have a significant impact on women making the decision to use hormone therapy in the early postmenopausal years.”

Study co-authors are Val Lowe, M.D.; Timothy Lesnick, M.S.; Nirubol Tosakulwong; Kent Bailey, Ph.D.; Julie Fields, Ph.D.; Lynne Shuster, M.D.; Samantha Zuk; Matthew Senjem M.S.; Michelle Mielke, Ph.D.; Clifford Jack Jr., M.D.; Walter Rocca, M.D.; and Virginia Miller, Ph.D., all of Mayo Clinic; and Carey Gleason, Ph.D., of University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health.

This study is funded by the Aurora Foundation to the Kronos Longevity Research Institute and NIH. (NS66147, AG029624, AG44170)


About Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit organization committed to clinical practice, education and research, providing expert, whole-person care to everyone who needs healing. For more information, visit and


Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease is published by IOS Press

Copyright © 2016


Unmasking Alzheimer’s Risk in Young Adults

( The risk for developing devastating Alzheimer’s disease may be detectable in healthy adults younger than expected, and new studies reveal how.

Tests already exist to determine a genetic risk for familial Alzheimer’s disease, which is typically early-onset and less common than sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Both types cause dementia. However, identifying risk for the sporadic variety of Alzheimer’s — which accounts for about 95% of all Alzheimer’s cases — is not as simple.

A study published in the journal Neurology on Wednesday suggests that the risk factors for sporadic Alzheimer’s can be detected early in adulthood and might make a person more susceptible to cognitive decline.

One of the easiest ways to identify this risk might be to take a close look at images of a patient’s hippocampus, a brain region associated with memory, the study suggests.

Younger adults with various genetic risk factors for Alzheimer’s have a smaller hippocampal volume, said Elizabeth Mormino, a researcher at Massachusetts General Hospital and lead author of the study.

“However, we are not able to determine whether these young subjects with elevated risk actually progress to dementia late in life, since that sort of extended followup is not available,” she added.

“Nevertheless, this finding informs our understanding of disease mechanisms by revealing an impact of common risk variants decades before clinical symptoms would be present.”

A Surprising Link

For the study, researchers used MRI images to analyze the hippocampi of 166 people with dementia and 1,026 people without dementia. The average age was 75. The researchers also determined the polygenic risk of Alzheimer’s disease for each person by probing their DNA for specific gene variants associated with a high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. A polygenic risk score is a numeric score based on whether a person has several of those gene variants.

Next, the researchers calculated the same risk score and hippocampal volume in 1,322 healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 35.

The researchers found a small association between a higher risk score and having a smaller hippocampal volume within both older and younger groups. Within young adults, the risk score accounted for about 0.2% of the variance in hippocampal volume.

“I was surprised that we identified a link between our polygenic risk scores and hippocampal volume among young adults, decades before any clinical symptoms of the disease would be present,” Mormino said.

“This implies that changes early in life may impact risk of dementia late in life and that these changes have a genetic basis.”

Additionally, the researchers found that among older adults who did not enter the study with dementia, a higher risk score was tied to worse memory function over time and a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with dementia during a subsequent doctor’s visit.

“Alzheimer’s disease starts in the brain many decades before the first symptoms of memory loss appear, but what’s happened over time is that most people don’t realize their risk until they start having memory loss,” said Dr. Richard Isaacson, director of the Alzheimer’s Prevention Clinic at Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, who was not involved in the study.

“Before that, you can have metabolic or functional changes in the brain as well as structural changes. The size of the hippocampus, or memory center of the brain, may start to shrink in the 30s or younger,” he added.

“As the science expands, we’ll be better able to understand the true nature of sporadic versus genetic Alzheimer’s.”

Brain Scans Hold Clues

The new findings seem to confirm what was shown in a separate study, published in the journal Biological Psychiatry in March, in which brain scans also revealed structural differences in the hippocampi of young adults with high and low risk scores.

Those researchers analyzed the association between genetic risk scores and brain images of about 300 healthy young adults.

“We had expected to see changes in the hippocampus in relation to risk for Alzheimer’s disease based on the existing anatomical literature but were still somewhat surprised to see them in a relatively young cohort,” said David Linden, professor of translational neuroscience at Cardiff University in Wales and a co-author of the study.

“Similar effects of reduced hippocampal volume in relation to increased polygenic Alzheimer’s disease risk have now been reported for unrelated participants by other research groups,” he added,

“which inspires confidence into the robustness of these findings.”

To diagnose Alzheimer’s disease, doctors may perform brain-imaging tests, but those tests are typically to rule out other possible causes for a patient’s symptoms.

Additionally, brain imaging can help doctors identify the disease once there has been damage to a patient’s brain tissue. There still isn’t a way to detect and clinically diagnose Alzheimer’s using brain imaging alone.

How to Reduce Risk

A majority of adults 60 and older tend to be most concerned about developing Alzheimer’s disease, according to a YouGov survey conducted in the UK last year. Fear of Alzheimer’s even took precedence over cancer and financial concerns in the survey. As the world mourned legendary women’s college basketball coach Pat Summitt, who died at age 64 last week after battling Alzheimer’s, such concerns probably have heightened.

Yet, there’s hope. More research not only could help physicians with using brain imaging and other methods to better identify dementia risk, it might lead to future preventative treatments, Mormino said.

Fear can be paralyzing, Isaacson said.

But “the field of Alzheimer’s risk reduction and disease prevention is exploding,” he added.

“It’s really important that people are not fearful and that younger people don’t think there’s nothing a person can do to reduce their risk and protect their brain,” Isaacson said.

“Recent studies finally get us passed the dogma of ‘there’s nothing you can do.’ There are so many things you can do.”

For instance, at-risk young adults can alter their diets to include foods that benefit brain health, as well as focus on getting a healthy amount of exercise and sleep.

“The earlier you detect risk, the better,” Isaacson said. “And the notion that there’s nothing you can do is false.”


By Jacqueline Howard, CNN

© 2016 Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


House Hears Call of Alzheimer’s Association Advocates, Proposes Critical Research Funding Increase

( Today, the House Labor-HHS Appropriations Subcommittee proposed a $350 million increase for Alzheimer’s research at the NIH. This bipartisan effort was led by Alzheimer’s champion Chairman Tom Cole (R-Okla.) and comes just weeks after the Senate Appropriations Committee proposed a historic $400 million increase. The full House Appropriations Committee may take action on the House Appropriations bill as early as next week.

“On behalf of the millions of Americans impacted by this fatal disease, I thank Chairman Cole and other members of the subcommittee for their commitment to end the Alzheimer’s epidemic,” said Harry Johns, Alzheimer’s Association president and CEO.

“Today, Alzheimer’s disease is the only leading cause of death without a way to prevent, cure or even slow its progression. Only research will change this.”

In 2012, the first-ever National Plan to Address Alzheimer’s Disease was released with a goal to prevent and effectively treat Alzheimer’s disease by 2025. Experts have determined that in order to reach this goal annual Alzheimer’s disease research funding at NIH must be at least $2 billion. Today, following last year’s historic $350 million increase, Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias receive $991 million each year.

“At a cost of $18.3 million an hour, Alzheimer’s is the most expensive disease in the country,” said Robert Egge, Alzheimer’s Association chief public policy officer.

“Today’s announcement will provide important funding for research that will allow scientists to better address the gaps in our understanding about this devastating disease.”

Today, there are more than 5 million people living with Alzheimer’s disease and more than 15 million family and friends serving as unpaid caregivers in the United States. It is the most expensive disease in America at a cost of $236 billion annually. The Alzheimer’s Association’s relentless advocates have held thousands of meetings with their elected officials sharing their personal stories of how Alzheimer’s has affected them and calling on Congress to increase research funding at the NIH.

Alzheimer’s Association®

The Alzheimer’s Association is the leading voluntary health organization in Alzheimer’s care, support and research. Our mission is to eliminate Alzheimer’s disease through the advancement of research, to provide and enhance care and support for all affected, and to reduce the risk of dementia through the promotion of brain health. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer’s. For more information, visit


Copyright © 2016  Alzheimer’s Association®. All rights reserved.


Ten Medications Older Adults Should Avoid or Use with Caution

( Because older adults often have long-term health conditions that require treatment with multiple medications, there is a greater chance of experiencing unwanted drug side effects. Older people can also be more sensitive to certain medications.

To help you make better-informed decisions about your medications, and to lower your chances of overmedication and serious drug reactions, the American Geriatrics Society’s Health in

Aging Foundation recommends that older people be cautious about using the following types of medications, including some that can be purchased without a prescription (over-the-counter).

  • If you are taking any of these medications, talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
  • Do not stop taking any medication without first talking to your healthcare provider.




AVOID Certain Diabetes Drugs

  • Glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase) and chlorpropamide (Diabinese)
These can cause dangerously low blood sugar.
AVOID Muscle Relaxants

  • Such as cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), methocarbamol (Robaxin), carisoprodol (Soma), and similar medications.
They can leave you feeling groggy and confused, increase your risk of falls, and cause constipation, dry mouth, and problems urinating. Plus, there is little evidence that they work well.
AVOID Certain Medications used for Anxiety and Insomnia

  • Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), and chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
  • Sleeping pills such as zaleplon (Sonata), zolpidem (Ambien), and eszopiclone (Lunesta)
They can increase your risk of falls, as well as cause confusion. Because it takes your body a long time to get rid of these drugs, these effects can carry into the day after you take the medication.
AVOID Certain Anticholinergic Drugs

  • Antidepressants amitriptyline (Elavil) and imipramine (Tofranil)
  • Anti-Parkinson drug trihexyphenidyl (Artane)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome drug dicyclomine (Bentyl)
They can cause confusion, constipation, dry mouth, blurry vision, and problems urinating (in men).
AVOID the Pain Reliever meperidine (Demerol) It can increase the risk of seizures and can cause confusion.
AVOID Certain Over-the-Counter (OTC) Products

  • AVOID products that contain the antihistamines diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (AllerChlor, Chlor-Trimeton). These medications are often included in OTC remedies for coughs, colds, and allergies.
  • AVOID OTC sleep products, like Tylenol PM, which contain antihistamines such as diphenhydramine.
Although these medications are sold without a prescription, they are not risk- free. They can cause confusion, blurred vision, constipation, problems urinating, and dry mouth.
If you are NOT being treated for psychosis,

AVOID using Antipsychotics

  • Such as haloperidol (Haldol), risperidone (Risperdal), or quetiapine (Seroquel). These medications are commonly used to treat behavioral problems in older adults with dementia.
They can increase the risk of stroke or even death in older adults with dementia.They can also cause tremors and other side effects, as well as increase your risk of falls.
AVOID Estrogen Pills and Patches

  • Typically prescribed for hot flashes and other menopause-related symptoms
They can increase your risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and possibly dementia.


Print the chart, Meds to Avoid.

DISCLAIMER: This information is not intended to diagnose health problems or to take the place of medical advice or care you receive from your physician or other healthcare provider. Always consult your healthcare provider about your medications, symptoms, and health problems. Sept 2015.


©2015 Health in Aging Foundation. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced, displayed, modified, or distributed without the express prior written permission of the copyright holder. For permission, contact


The MIND Diet: Another Approach to Dementia Risk Reduction

(Alzheimer’s Australia) Dietary patterns have long been associated with decreasing cognitive decline and reducing your risk of dementia and researchers have now suggested that those who follow the MIND diet can lower their dementia risk by as much as 50%.


The MIND diet stands for Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay. It emphasises the consumption of natural plant-based foods and limits intake of animal and high saturated fat foods. Unlike the Mediterranean diet (another recommended ‘brain health’ diet) it uniquely specifies the consumption of berries and green leafy vegetables and cautions against foods such as butter, cheese, pastries and sweets, only suggesting to have a couple of servings per week, if at all.

In this most recent study, published in the Journal Alzheimer’s and Dementia, the researchers asked 923 participants living in Chicago, USA, to self-evaluate their diet by completing a dietary questionnaire. Participants involved in this population based study were aged between 58 and 98 years and were followed for an average of 4.5 years. They also underwent neuropsychological assessments to measure their cognitive abilities and determine their dementia status.

The diet questionnaire was based on a rating score system. For example the MIND diet was rated out of 15 and if you followed the diet 100% and ate all the recommended foods you got a score of 15. The researchers found that those who strictly adhered either to the MIND or Mediterranean diets (i.e. had high rating scores) were found to have a 50% reduction in the rate of Alzheimer’s disease. Even those who were only moderately adhering to this diet (i.e. had mid-way rating scores) were still found to have a 35% reduction in the rate of Alzheimer’s disease.

Unfortunately, the results don’t suggest that adhering to this diet will prevent Alzheimer’s disease but it does give more evidence that following a healthy ‘brain’ diet can reduce your risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.The American researchers now plan on confirming their results in different populations and also through randomised controlled trials, which will give much more precise recommendations on ‘brain healthy’ diets.

As part of the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study currently being undertaken in Australia, diet is one of the major factors being looked at and the researchers will have some clear answers about this in coming years.

In the meantime, there is also plenty of information about diet and dementia risk on the Alzheimer’s Australia Your Brain Matters website.


  • The results suggest following this diet might reduce your risk of dementia but it does not suggest it will prevent dementia or delay the onset of symptoms.
  • This trial is a population based study where they asked participants to self-evaluate their diet and is not a randomised controlled trial where they tell participants exactly what to eat and when. This type of trial is planned for the future.
  • The MIND diet has 15 dietary components including 10 ‘brain healthy’ food groups (green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, nuts, berries, beans, whole grains, fish, poultry, olive oil, and wine) and five food groups that is recommends to avoid (red meats, butter and stick margarine, cheese, pastries and sweets, and fried/fast food).
  • This study also suggests that the Mediterranean diet can also reduce your risk of dementia.


Alzheimer’s and Dementia –

Copyright © Alzheimer’s Australia. All Rights Reserved.


No Risk of Contracting Dementia through Blood Transfusion

(Karolinska Institutet) Previous studies have shown that neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s can be induced in healthy laboratory animals, causing concern that dementia diseases can be transmitted between individuals, possibly via blood transfusions. However, in a new study published in The Annals of Internal Medicine, a team from Karolinska Institutet shows that the diseases are not transmitted.

Studies published in recent years have shown that a number of neurological conditions can be induced in healthy laboratory animals through the injection of diseased brain tissue from human sufferers. To determine whether dementia diseases can be transmitted between people via blood transfusion, researchers at Karolinska Institutet conducted a study based on a unique Swedish-Danish transfusion database. Their results demonstrate that dementia diseases are not transmitted in this way.

“The results are unusually clear for such a complicated subject as this,” says principal investigator Gustaf Edgren, docent at the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

“We’ve been working with this question for a long time now and have found no indication that these diseases can be transmitted via transfusions.”

Blood Donors and Patients

The study was a collaboration with researchers at Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen and was carried out using data on a total of 1.7 million blood donors and 2.1 million patients given blood transfusions in Sweden and Denmark. The researchers were able to identify over 40,000 patients who had been given blood from donors diagnosed with one of the studied dementia diseases within 20 years of having given blood.

The patients were then followed up for a maximum of 44 years through the linking of a number of registries, including the Swedish and Danish patient registries. A total of 1.4 million patients who had not received blood from donors with a subsequent diagnosis were used as controls. The two groups were compared through statistical analysis taking account of sex, age, place of residence, blood group, number of transfusions and time since first transfusion.

The Same Risk

It turned out that the patients in the two groups had exactly the same risk of contracting these dementia diseases.

“Blood transfusions are extremely safe in the Western world today, but even so we are working continuously and proactively on identifying any overlooked risks. The Swedish-Danish database that we have built up and used in many similar studies clearly demonstrates the value of our vast health registries. This kind of study would have simply been extremely difficult anywhere else in the world,” says Dr Edgren.

The study was financed by the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, the Swedish Society for Medical Research and the Danish Council for Independent Research.


Journal Reference:

Gustaf Edgren, Henrik Hjalgrim, Klaus Rostgaard, Paul Lambert, Agneta Wikman, Rut Norda, Kjell-Einar Titlestad, Christian Erikstrup, Henrik Ullum, Mads Melbye, Michael P. Busch, Olof Nyrén. Transmission of Neurodegenerative Disorders Through Blood Transfusion A Cohort Study. The Annals of Internal Medicine, June 2016 DOI: 10.7326/M15-2421

© Karolinska Institutet


Cerebrovascular Disease Linked to Alzheimer’s

(Rush University Medical Center) Study finds association between diseases in brain blood vessels and dementia.

While strokes are known to increase risk for dementia, much less is known about diseases of large and small blood vessels in the brain, separate from stroke, and how they relate to dementia. Diseased blood vessels in the brain itself, which commonly is found in elderly people, may contribute more significantly to Alzheimer’s disease dementia than was previously believed, according to new study results published in June in The Lancet Neurology, a British medical journal.

“Cerebral vessel pathology might be an under-recognized risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease dementia,” the researchers wrote.

The study by researchers from the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center analyzed medical and pathologic data on 1,143 older individuals who had donated their brains for research upon their deaths, including 478 (42 percent) with Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Analyses of the brains showed that 445 (39 percent) of study participants had moderate to severe atherosclerosis — plaques in the larger arteries at the base of the brain obstructing blood flow — and 401 (35 percent) had brain arteriolosclerosis — in which there is stiffening or hardening of the smaller artery walls.

The study found that the worse the brain vessel diseases, the higher the chance of having dementia, which is usually attributed to Alzheimer’s disease. The increase was 20 to 30 percent for each level of worsening severity. The study also found that atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis are associated with lower levels of thinking abilities, including in memory and other thinking skills, and these associations were present in persons with and without dementia.

“Both large and small vessel diseases have effects on dementia and thinking abilities, independently of one another, and independently of the common causes of dementia such as Alzheimer’s pathology and strokes,”

said Dr. Zoe Arvanitakis. A neurologist and researcher at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Arvanitakis led the study, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Part of Rush University Medical Center, the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center is dedicated to the study of Alzheimer’s, a neurological condition that is the most common cause of dementia. It is one of 29 designated centers in the United States funded by the National Institute on Aging.

The study was not designed to determine causation of Alzheimer’s dementia, or even whether vascular disease or Alzheimer’s developed first.

“But it does suggest that vessel disease plays a role in dementia,” Arvanitakis said.

“We found that blood vessel diseases are very common in the brain, and are associated with dementia that is typically attributed to Alzheimer’s disease during life.”

Does Preventing Cerebrovascular Disease Also Prevent Alzheimer’s?

The study examined which cognitive difficulties are caused by vessel diseases and whether vessel disease and Alzheimer’s are more destructive in tandem than they would be alone. An editorial in The Lancet Neurology that accompanied the study findings noted that while other studies have indicated that proactive measures like eating a selective diet and getting regular exercise might protect people against getting Alzheimer’s, those interventions might actually be acting on non-Alzheimer’s disease processes, such as cerebrovascular disease.

Arvanitakis says they don’t know yet.

“They may decrease actual Alzheimer’s, and possibly even work by yet other pathways,” Arvanitakis said.

“We hope to better distinguish how the clinical expression of vessel diseases in the brain differ from those of Alzheimer’s, so that we may eventually use earlier and more targeted treatments for dementia.”

Nearly 47 million people now live with dementia worldwide, according Alzheimer’s Disease International, the international federation of Alzheimer associations around the world. By 2050, that number is projected to be 132 million. Therefore, finding ways to treat or prevent the disease “is a major goal,” Arvanitakis said.

The participants in the study published in Lancet Neurology came from two (RADC) cohort studies, the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project, which have followed people older than 65, in their communities, for more than two decades. Participants receive annual health assessments and agree to donate their brains for research upon their deaths. The Lancet Neurology study used clinical data gathered from participants from 1994 to 2015, and pathologic data obtained from examination of the brains donated for autopsy, and used regression analyses to determine the odds of Alzheimer’s dementia and levels of cognitive function, for increasing levels of brain vessel diseases.


Journal Reference:

Zoe Arvanitakis, Ana W Capuano, Sue E Leurgans, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider. Relation of cerebral vessel disease to Alzheimer’s disease dementia and cognitive function in elderly people: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet Neurology, 2016; DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30029-1

© Rush University Medical Center


Can Alzheimer’s Be Stopped?

( Alzheimer’s disease strikes at the core of what makes us human: our capacity to think, to love, and to remember. The disease ravages the minds of over 40 million victims worldwide, and it is one of the greatest medical mysteries of our time.

Join investigators as they gather clues and attempt to reconstruct the molecular chain of events that ultimately leads to dementia, and follow key researchers in the field who have helped to develop the leading theories of the disease.

Along the way, meet individuals from all walks of life who will reveal what it’s like to struggle with Alzheimer’s. Among them, members of a unique Colombian family who have learned that their genetic predisposition all but guarantees early onset Alzheimer’s.

Yet there may be hope. Join these courageous patients participating in clinical trials, and then go behind the scenes of the major drug trials to see how researchers target and test therapies that may slow and even prevent Alzheimer’s.

Watch the full program here. It aired April 13, 2016 on PBS.



Website © 1996–2016 WGBH Educational Foundation